Chronic Kidney Disease: A Life Course Health Development Perspective
This is one of 26 chapters published in the Handbook of Life Course Health Development.
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) reflects life events that range from maternal-fetal influences to geriatric exposures. The global direct and indirect costs of CKD are high and include maternal-neonatal hospitalization and treatment, acute kidney injury, dialysis and transplant, missed work, and medications, to name a few. The impact of poor diet, adverse childhood experiences, medication use, and failure to follow consistent public health standards are increasingly appreciated as key influences in the development of CKD. Socioeconomic factors can significantly influence the timing and phenotypic expression in people at risk for developing CKD, although more research is needed to understand these mechanisms. In general, biomedicine has been focused on treating well-established CKD morbidity. This strategy has been short sighted and costly. A more cost-effective approach would focus on early life interventions that hold the potential for mitigating CKD risk and its sequelae. This chapter applies the life course health development principles to review determinants and pathways for CKD evolution and identifies of the gaps in our knowledgebase. We also discuss several research strategies for evaluating the life course health development of CKD.